Our environment is made of both living and non-living things. The living things include animals, plants, and other microorganisms, whereas air, water, soil, sunlight, etc., form the non-living components of the environment.
Whenever any kind of toxicity is added to our surroundings for a considerably long duration, it leads to environmental pollution. Some of the major types of pollutions are air, water, soil, noise, light, and nuclear pollution.
Smokes from the industries, house chimneys, vehicles, and fuels causes air pollution. Wasted industrial solvents, plastics, and other wastes, sewage etc., causes water pollution. Use of pesticides and deforestation are the major causes of soil pollution. The unnecessary honking of the vehicles, use of loudspeakers lead to noise pollution.
Although it is hard to realize the light and nuclear pollutions these are equally harmful. Excessively bright lights consume a lot of energy while threatening the environmental balance in several ways. Needless to say, the negative impacts of a nuclear reaction last for many decades to come.
All the constituents are interconnected to each other. As the cycle of nature goes on, the toxicity of one component is passed on to all other components as well. There are various means by which the contamination continues to circle in the environment. We can understand it with an example below.
When it rains, the impurities of air gradually dissolve in the water-bodies and soil. When crops are grown in the fields, their roots absorb these harmful toxicants through the contaminated soil and water. The same food is ingested by both animals and human beings. In this way, it reaches the top of the food chain when the herbivores are consumed by the carnivores.
The consequences of environmental pollution can be seen in the form of severe health diseases. More people are suffering from respiratory problems, weaker immunity, kidney and liver infections, cancer, and other chronic illnesses. The aquatic life, including both flora and fauna, is depleting rapidly. The soil quality and crop quality are deteriorating.
Global warming has become a major issue as a result of environmental pollution that the world needs to cope up with. The melting icebergs in Antarctica have resulted in the rising sea levels. Natural calamities such as frequent earthquakes, cyclones, etc., are all due to the havoc caused by the increased environmental pollution levels. Incidents of Hiroshima-Nagasaki and Chernobyl in Russia have led to the irreparable damage to the humankind.