Waste management is a technique through which waste is handled in a right way. This includes collecting, transporting, processing, recycling, disposal of waste and monitoring waste materials. Generating waste is a part of our life. Hence, we should think deep to find out efficient ways of waste management.
Waste is generated through different sources: for instance, from offices, industries, houses, etc. On one hand, special techniques are required for disposal of some kinds of waste, on the other hand some waste that is being generated at home can be reduced, reused and recycled. 3Rs principles provide the best way to manage waste on our own. We should try to minimize the amount of waste that is being generated. Moreover, we can reuse an item again and again so that there will be minimum production of waste and at the same time recycling can be done. At home, we should try to segregate waste as organic and inorganic. We can use organic waste to create compost instead of throwing it. Inorganic waste like aluminium cans, plastics, papers and metals can be recycle by a factory. Even, a small amount of effort reduce the quantity of waste generation. With a small effort we can control wasting our resources by careful handling. For instance, switching off electricity when not in use, closing the tap when not in use. This can save a lot of precious resources as well as reduce wastage. People should use eco-friendly products. These are the effective ways to manage waste.
According to the Global Waste Index 2019, the United States is the biggest generator of waste per-capita worldwide. Each citizen of the United States produces an average 808 Kilograms per year. According to a report, India is one of the top five e-waste generating country in the world following China, The United States, Japan and Germany. Production of waste generation also depends on the population. The study shows that population in the world is growing at a rate of around 1.05 per cent, consequently demand also increases which result in expansion of waste. Hence, to manage waste is a big task. There is an urgent need that people must start to take responsibility of managing waste on their own. Additionally, people can take initiatives such as to create awareness among themselves.
Hazardous waste is a big problem in mega cities. In India there are lots of industries in cities which are responsible for producing hazardous waste. These industries include petrochemical, chemical, medicines and pharmaceuticals, paper, textiles, pesticides, and fertilizer industries. Central as well as state government is putting effort to manage hazardous waste. In India we have Environment Protection Act, 1986 which provides key rules to manage hazardous substance and chemicals. It also includes the Hazardous Waste Management and Handling Rules, 2008 and the objective of this act is to control the generation, collection, treatment, import, storage, and handling of hazardous waste.
Moreover, proper strategy is required to manage high toxic waste. High toxic waste is generated usually from industries and agriculture. For instance, India faces stubble burning issue each year. This stubble burning also leads to increase in pollution level and affects public health. Despite many strict rules and regulations stubble burning happens in many parts of India. Farmers should be responsible and accountable for this. They should understand the consequences of stubble burning. The farmers should be educated on different ways to handle the stubble. For instance, they can be taught about the water decomposer solution, converting the stubble into animal feed, manure and cardboard, incentivizing farmers to grow crops that don’t guzzle water, etc. Therefore, education plays an important role and all things are interconnected in one way or the other. Through education each individual gets an opportunity to know about their responsibility. Some countries which have highest literacy rate like Germany and Austria have the best recycling rate in the world. Both countries manage to recycle between 52 per cent and 56 per cent of their municipal waste. Similarly, other developing countries should try to learn effective management of waste from developed countries.
When people understand that garbage is their own responsibility, they will definitely try to discover new ways to manage it. People should be encouraged to do this. It is well known that “responsibility is accepting that you are the cause and the solution of the matter”. Understanding one’s responsibility is the foremost requirement to manage waste. People should be made aware of the disadvantages of waste generation. Segregation of biodegradable and non-biodegradable should be highlighted to local residents as one of the primary role to manage waste. At a personal level motivation is required so that people feel more responsible to manage waste. In every country government has started some plans to manage waste, people should cooperate with the government for effective implementation of these policies.