Environment is the beautiful creation of God. Its a priceless gift for us.The term environment originated from French word “Environer” which means surround. Varieties of biotic and abiotic factors are present in earth.Biotic factors are the living organisms which have life. Abiotic factors are non-living i.e sulight,air,water,land etc.Life of living organisms depend on the abiotic natural things. Micro-organisms are also live in environment. Plants are producers, animals are consumers.
Pollution means adding impurities to the environment by manmade activities, this result in formation of waste. The pollution may be takes place in air,water, soil and also in thermal radiation. Now-a-days there is rapid increase in industrialization and technical growth, which releases harmful substances to the surrounding and impure the non living things in the environment. Rapid increase in deforestation and improper use of natural resources results in greater environmental pollution. These things are takes place due to rapid increase in human population, which is the big reason behind pollution. To meet the needs of larger human population, environment suffers more.
Pollution not only affects the natural resources. It also leads to natural calamities like floods, cyclones, droughts, acid rain etc.This kind of activities which occur due to pollution severely affecting the economy of country. Wastes are Overloaded in environment now-a-days,so it’s proper management needed to reduce the chance of environment pollution. By reducing the source of waste and pollution we can live a pollution free life. So it’s our responsibility to manage our surrounding.
☆Sources Of Waste ,It’s Effect and management—-::::
(A) Cause-; In agricultural sector farmers using pesticides, insecticides, fertilizers in more amount. When these get mixed with air leads to pollution .From these activities ammonia release into atmosphere, which is more hazardous.
Burning of fossil fuels like petroleum, coal and other factors causes air pollution. Smoke emitting from vehicles like bus,trucks, jeeps, cars also lead to air pollution. During examinations of different missiles also some harmful gases released that lead to ozone depletion, greenhouse gas etc.
In factories and mills large amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, organic compounds, chemicals emitted. Nowadays there are large number of industries are formed in every corner of world and release a huge amount of harmful gas to the atmosphere.
(B) Effects -; Air pollution causes global warming, that also leads to increse in sea water levels, increasing in temperature world wide and also melting ice in cold regions, that lead to loss of drinking water.
Acid rain is another effect of air pollution. Harmful gases like sulphur oxide, nitrogen oxide are released into the atmosphere during burning of fossil fuels. When it rains water droplets combined with these air pollutants, become acidic and then fall on the ground in acid form. Acid rain causes great damage to humans, animals and crops.
Effect of air pollution are very harmful to health. It leads to different kinds of respiratory disease like asthma, bronchitis, cancer, heart attacks. Every year a lot of people affected over world wide due to direct or indirect effects of air pollution.
Air pollutants poison wildlife through obstructions in endocrine system, injury of organs, lower reproductive success and possible deaths. People’s affected by lungs disease,who lives in places with high levels of pollution. Over
1-2 million sea birds and other animals killed every year due to pollution.
(C) Management-; In industries filtered out of waste streams from factories and power plants before they are released to air.Using scrubbing techniques and electrical separation can aid in process of breaking down harmful gases and particles. Recycle substances like paper, plastic, metal ,organic materials and use alternative energy sources like wind, solar in home to promote healthy environment.
(A)Causes-; Water pollution is a major global problem. It is the leading world wide cause of disease and death. Near about 14,000 people died everyday due to water pollution. An estimated of 500 million Indians have no access to proper toilets and 1000 children’s die of diarrheal sickness everyday. 90% of China cities face a lot problem due to water pollution. Nearly 450 million people lack access to safe drinking water. In addition to the acute problem of water pollution in developing countries, industrialised countries continue to struggle with pollution problems. In most recent national report of water quality in USA ,45% accessed stream miles, 47% of accessed lake areas and 32% accessed bay are classified as polluted.
Water typically refers as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants and either doesn’t support a human use,such as drinking water and undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent biotic communities such as fish,tortoises etc.Natural phenomena such as volcano’s, algae bloom, storms and earthquakes cause major changes in water quality and ecological status of water.
(B)Effects-; Sewage and agricultural runoff are increasing ,growth of algae which causes the eutrophication. Consumption of contaminated water causes water related diseases such as typhoid, fever, cholera, malaria, dysentery and hepatitis. Swimming in contaminated water causes skin rashes and also infections. Aquatic ecosystems are destroyed by the high temperatures in surface waters and causing an ecological imbalance.
In human disease like hepatitis caused by eating seafood i.e poisoned or contaminated. In developing countries there are frequent outbreaks of cholera and disease due to poor drinking water quality from contaminated water. Polluted drinking water causes typhoid infection and also diarrheal. Chemical like flouride, arsenic, lead,chlorine and peteochemical in water can cause adverse effects on humans health. Arsenic poisoning causes serious liver and nervous system damage, vascular disease and skin cancer.
In animals ,water pollution kills life that depends on these water bodies,.Fishes and aquatic organisms are poisoned due to industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides. Oil spills in water surface cause animal to die as they ingest it or come across it .Oil can’t dissolve in water, so it causes suffocation in fish and birds. Animals that eat dead fish from contaminated streams are affected. Fish, birds, dolphins and many other animals are killed by pollutant in their habitat.
(C)Management-; All domestic and municipal effluent be drained to water bodies only after treatment .Use of pesticides in agriculture should be limited. Only standard quality pesticides should be used. Chemical like potassium permanganet should be sprayed regularly to protect water from microorganisms. Radio active substances can be removed by ion exchange methods. Plants, trees and forests control pollution and they acts as natural air conditioners and also air refreshers. Bacteria killed by passing chlorine gas into water bodies. Inorganic waste can be treated chemically. Acid and bases are removed by neutralisation.
(A)Causes-; Soil pollution defined as build up of impurities such as toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, certain radioactive and disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health. Soil pollution also occurs due to different activities of human. Man made contaminates are the cause of soil pollution and consists of a large variety of inorganic and organic chemicals. These polluted soil either alone or combined with several natural soil contaminants. The soil pollution usually occurs due to improper disposal of waste coming from industry and urban areas and agricultural insecticides, pesticides & fertilizers.
Natural processes can lead to an accumulation of toxic chemicals in soil which is purely due to natural processes in environment. Also deforestation is a big reason of soil pollution.
(B) Effects-; In plants during growth pollutant molecules that present in soil are absorbed and get accumulated in it.Due to pollution young seedings decay even before they appear above soil surface. Then roots also decay,which interference in supply of water in stems and plants, so plants eventually die.Plants also die due to contaminated nutrients supply and obstructions takes place in growth and development. The effect of soil pollution are very hazardous and can lead to ecosystem loss.When land polluted directly or indirectly affecting the climate pattern and disturbances in climate takes place.
By eating such contaminated plants, animals consume all the pollutants that available in plant. Then by eating such plants and animals large amounts of poison enter into the human body thus leads to poison in human body.
Soil pollution also leads to economic damage. Polluted soil with heavy metals doesn’t allow plants to grow. Grains are often polluted which grows in soil & can’t be consumed. So farmers are in great loss and thus leads to economical loss of country.
(C)Management-; Reducing use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can reduce the chance of soil pollution. Recycling is another way to reduce and control soil pollution. Recycling of paper, plastic and other materials should be done with the greatest care. Due to deforestation cutting down of trees causes soil erosion, pollution and decrease the fertility of top-soil.
Ban on use of plastic bags, which are the major cause of soil pollution in urban areas. Encouraging forest plantations programme, using of pollution free pesticides, fertiliser should be promoted.
☆Our Responsibility In Managing Waste And Creating Awareness-:::::::
If we consider environment the waste are produced from pollution, mainly due to various harmful activities of human. Human is 95% responsible for production of wastes in different fields of environment. So we all are responsible for it.So we have to make strategies inorder to manage the waste properly. Our responsibility is to establish waste minimisation plans. We need to know the source of waste. Preparing a sampling and analysis plan for generated waste. Testing effectiveness of decontamination technologies to meeting the established clearance level. Identifying more than one technique in plan for temporary, secure storage sites.initiate discussion about facilities to facilitate their acceptance of incident waste. Determining facilities of waste acceptance criteria, considering community and environmental justice.
Focus should be on how waste materials are handled, packaged, labelled and transported. Incorporate strategies to limit the spread of contamination. Determining selecting criteria, secured location for sites.Plan for environmental monitoring, record discussions with transportation & facilities. Including research and tentative decisions, developing waste related community outreach and health safety plans.
Government should create awareness programmes to reduce chances of pollution in environment. Also tell people about waste management strategies so that people manage their domestic waste properly. By creating awareness programmes government should emphasise particularly about, what’s the future of environment it pollution rapidly developed. Also by making posters, sign boards and mainly using social media by making videos we can spread awareness quickly. Also arranging awareness programmes for students in schools and colleges. Because students are the future of nation.So to build a pollution free nation, they need to know about the environment and committed to maintaining a good hygiene.
India government started “Swachha Bharat Abhiyan” from 2nd October, 2014.To make India clean, green and pollution free.Every citizen of country should be clean and have to maintain a good hygiene & think about progress rather than wait for government to make this plan successful. Government should be strict towards people’s activities,to reduce chances of pollution. If people don’t obey government guidelines regarding safety environment, fine should be taken from him.And in most illegal activities police should arrest them & send to jail.
Mahatma Gandhi had rightly said, “Sanitation is more important than independence “.He made cleanliness and sanitation an integral part of the Gandhiyan way of living. His dream was all about sanitation, after all he also aware of the pathetic situation of the Indian rural people at that time. Unfortunately we have completed 73yrs of independence and we have only about 30% of the rural households with access to toilets.
Modern waste management methods are safer for people and also for environment. Recycling and composting have grown faster in many countries, so we have to emphasise on it.
At the end it’s our responsibility to make our environment pollution free, because we’re responsible for the waste production. If we don’t take care of our environment, one day will come when we don’t get purified oxygen for respiration. Also suffer to get purified water for drinking purpose, as well as in agriculture field to cultivate healthy crops. So from today we have to take the responsibility to make environment pollution free, waste free and try to maintain a good hygiene.
We take pledge to plant a tree every day to make our environment green and keeping it clean.
Our motivation should be
Go Green .”
Because its hard to find a pollution free environment.