Waste is a natural by-product of the phenomena of life and growth of societies. It is viewed as unwanted or unusable material that has been disposed or discarded after primary use. Plants shed leaves, animal excrete. Humans in their day to day life excrete a bundles heap of waste of countless variety.
Plastic,with its exclusive qualities is now as a serious worldwide environmental and health concern, essentially due to its non biodegradable nature. More than 50% of the plastic waste generated in the country is recycled and used in the manufacture of various plastic products. Dioxin is a highly carcinogenic and toxic by-product of the manufacturing process of plastics. Burning of plastic especially PVC,release this dioxin into atmosphere.
The process of conversation of waste to a product that can be put to primary use can be viewed as a process of generating wealth. Hence the phrase ‘WASTE TO WEALTH’
SOURCES OF PLASTIC GENERATION
* Household (carry bags,pet bottles, containers)
* Health and Medicare (Disposable syringes, Glucose bottles, blood and
urine bags, surgical gloves )
* Hotel and Catering (Packaging items,mineral water bottles, plastic plates
* Air / Rail travel ( plastic plates,spoons,plastic bags,mineral water bottles)
* how day-to-day activities generate waste
* concept of 5R: Refuse,Reduce,Reuse,Recycle, Recover
* innovative processes that generate products from waste creating wealth
* the scope of livelihood generation through entrepreneurship
CATEGORY OF PLASTICS
a) Recyclable plastics (thermoplastics): PET,HDPE,PVC,LDPE,PP,PS etc.
b) Non recyclable plastics:(thermoset or others): Multi layer& laminated plastics, Bakelite, polycarbonate, melamine, nylon etc.
Out of total uses of plastic,80% are thermoplastic and 20% are thermosetting
PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT
Disposable of plastic waste is a serious concern in India. New technologies have been developed to minimize their adverse effect on the environment .Effective management of waste is now a national priority as seen through Swachh Bharat Mission. This seeks to sensitize every citizen, especially the young, and them a partner in creating a clean nation.
1. Conventional Technology: Recycling, Incineration, Land filling
Steps involved in Recycling process:
• Incineration can be used with recovery of some of the energy content in the plastic. The useful energy recovered can vary considerably depending on whether it is used for electricity generation, combined heat and power or as solid refuse fuel for Co-filling of blast furnaces or cement kilns.
• Land fill is the conventional approach to waste management. A well managed landfill site results in limited immediate environment harm beyond the impacts of collection and transport.
2. New technology: Polymer blended bitumen roads, co-processing in
cement kilns, plasma pyrolysis, liquid fuel
☆The utilisation plastic waste in bituminous mixes enhances its properties and also in strength. In addition it will also be a solution to plastic waste. The titanium-dioxide is used as a smoke absorbent material ,which will absorb the smoke from the vehicles. This innovative technology will be boon for Indian hot-humid climate. It’s economical and eco-friendly.
☆Co-processing indicate substitution of primary fuel and raw material by waste. Waste material such as plastic waste used for co-processing are referred to as alternative fuel and raw material (AFR)
☆ Pyrolysis is the thermal disintegration of carbonaceous material in oxygen-starved atmosphere. The intense and versatile heat generation capabilities of Plasma Pyrolysis Technology enable it to dispose of all types of plastic waste including polymeric, biomedical and hazardous waste in a safe and reliable manner.
☆The entire process of Conversion of plastic waste into liquid fuel is undertaken in closed reactor vessel followed by condensation, if required. The organic gas is generated which can be used in dual fuel diesel generator set for generation of electricity.
Effective handling of waste is an impossible factor in the developmental progress of any nation and health of its people. Building a future in which people live in harmony with nature. Never underestimate the dangers in which the environment can cause if fail on our responsibility. It begins with you and me.