Plastic, with its exclusive qualities is now a serious worldwide environmental and health concern, essentially due to its non-biodegradable nature. More than 50% of the plastic waste generated in the country is recycled and used in the manufacture of various plastic products.
Dioxin is a highly carcinogenic and toxic by-product of the manufacturing process of plastics. Burning of plastics, especially PVC, releases this dioxin and also furan into the atmosphere. Plastics are so versatile in use that their impact on the environment is extremely wide ranging. Careless disposal of plastic bags chokes drains, blocks the porosity of the soil and causes problems for groundwater recharge. Plastic disturbs the soil microbial activity. Plastic bags can also contaminate foodstuffs due to leaching of toxic dyes and transfer of pathogens. In fact, a major portion of the plastic bags i.e. approximately 60-80% of the plastic waste generated in India is collected and segregated for recycling. 20 – 40% remains strewn on the ground, littered around in open drains.
Designing eco-friendly, biodegradable plastics are the need of the hour. Though partially biodegradable plastics have been developed and used, completely biodegradable plastics have only recently been developed.
2. USE OF PLASTIC WASTE
• India Plastic Recycling Industry give Employment and
business Opportunities to many families. Its Turnover is Rs.15, 000 Crores, Volume recycled is 2.6 MillionTonnes, No. of units are 10employment about 3.5 Million.
• Carbon Recycling: Fuel from Plastic Waste:
Waste yielding 900 litres of Diesel conforming to highest quality EN 590 diesel. Maharastra signs MOU to produce fuel from plastic.
• Unconventional Recycling:
• Energy Recovery: Co-Processing in cement kiln: Partial substitution of fossil fuel. Process has been certified by approved pollution control authority in India. Its benefit is all types of plastic waste fed wit
adequate cleaning. ICPE-ACC Plant established in
Kymore, M.P. in India for the first time.
Table 1. Plastic Waste for Better Roads
2.1. Properties that makes Plastic Waste suitable for roads construction
• Better Coating Ability to aggregates
• Improved bonding between binder & aggregates
• Higher Marshall stability
• Higher resistance to fatigue and permanent deformation characteristics.
• Less susceptibility to water damage
• Conservation of bitumen and aggregates
• Long service life
• More durability
• Improved performance
• Can be used in all climatic conditions
• No difference in binder content
• Reduced stripping due to plastic coating
• Disposal of plastic made easy
• Value addition to plastic leading to development of
management of garbage culture.
3. THREE DIFFERENT PROCESS USED IN ROAD
LAYING USING WASTE PLASTIC ARE
3.1 Waste Plastic–Aggregate-Bitumen Mix Road
The process of road laying using waste plastics is designed for construction of bituminous roads at various places in India. A brief description is given below. Disposed Plastics waste (films, cups and thermocol) are sorted and cleaned Waste Plastics to the required size(passing 6.75 mm and retaining 2.36 mm) are shredded Heat the aggregate to around (160-170° C) Quantitative Addition of shredded polymer waste with proper mixing technique to get a uniform coating at the surface(30-40 sec only) Quantitative addition of hot bitumen whose temperature is
maintained between 155-163 ° C Mix the waste plastic-Aggregate bitumen to get a uniform mix(composite) Bitumen-Polymer waste-aggregate mix(composite) is taken out around 130-140 ° C and used for road laying
Road laying is done between 110-130 ° C to get better result using 8 ton roller.