Waste management, reuse and reconstruction today is the need of the hour. With the help of new technologies and technology in the scientific institutions of the country, waste is being destructed, which is not only getting rid of waste, but we are making sustainable steps towards waste to wealth. In this article, we will get to know the policy, scientific and technical efforts being made for waste management which are helping to realize the dream of clean India.Lots of garbage piled up in our villages and cities and diseases arising in them have become a serious threat today. Mountains of garbage welcome us while traveling from home to office or college and before reaching any railway station by train. In the garbage, local cattle make their food in plastic pages, then somewhere along with the garbage, electronic waste also goes into their stomachs. In such a situation, time management, reuse and reconstruction of waste is the need of the hour. With the help of new technologies and technology in the scientific institutions of the country, waste is being destructed, which is not only getting rid of the waste, but we are also making sustainable steps towards waste to wealth.
According to an estimate 377.7 million residents of 7935 urban areas of India produce 1,70,000 tonnes of solid waste per day. It is also estimated that by 2030 when the cities will become 59 crore citizens and the production will be increased due to increasing population, it will be difficult to manage the natural urban waste. In this article, we will get to know the policy, scientific and technical efforts being made for waste management which are helping to realize the dream of clean India.
Incentives for waste-to-energy production technique. In 2017, the NITI Aayog under the Smart City and Swachh Bharat Project has prepared a three-year agenda to deal with the huge problem of municipal solid waste, with a seven-year strategy and a fifteen-year vision period. Under this, it has been proposed to generate energy from waste material in metros and manure from waste in the suburbs and semi-urban areas. The establishment of the Waste to Energy Corporation has been suggested by the NITI Aayog.
In the 2015 report, a sub-group of Chief Ministers formed on the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan had recommended waste-to-energy manufacturing plants. Currently, there is a mixed reaction of scientists and policy makers on the preparation of energy from waste in the country. The problem of waste is so deep that there is a possibility of poisonous gases from its combustion because the waste includes rotten food, pages, plastic and metal waste, electronic waste, all of which can cause many problems when combustion in the plant.
Today several technologies for waste-to-energy production have been developed that process waste to produce cleaner and more economical energy than before, including landfill gas absorption, thermal pyrolysis, and plasma gasification. Old waste furnace plants emitted high-level pollutants, while new technologies such as thermal pyrolysis and plasma gasification have significantly reduced pollution concerns from combustion. The NITI Aayog has also carried out a proportional assessment of the benefits and costs of thermal pyrolysis and plasma gasification technologies. These are high-budget technologies that require state support. Land will be needed to generate compost manure and biogas from waste, which can be achieved only with the help of the states. There is also a strong possibility of generating employment in waste-to-energy manufacturing,
Today the work of producing energy or fuel from organic waste is gaining momentum. The rice husk left after extracting rice was used only for firewood, but now rice bran oil is being used as a valuable oil for cooking in Madurai, Tirunelveli, etc. Similarly, wheat straw and sugarcane waste used to feed animals in fodder, but now in Kashipur, Uttarakhand, excellent biofuel 2G ethanol and lignin is being made. Farmers burn agricultural residues as waste, but biomass gasification power plants are now running from the same waste. Electricity is being generated in them, which is illuminating homes in thousands of villages in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Bihar.
Plastic waste management a challenge
Plastics and polyethylene are a major problem in waste management today. Plastic and polythene cannot be destroyed by any process and animals are prone to premature death by eating water with food lying in the garbage. A large number of cattle deaths are caused by eating polythene waste. According to a report, 30-40 lakh tonnes of plastic are produced every year in the country. About seven and a half million tons of polythene waste are recycled every year and the rest of the polythene river, Sewage and soil are stored and cause trouble. Problems caused by the use of plastic bags have arisen due to flaws in waste management systems. This plastic waste drains and disrupts the sewage system. These also affect the flow in rivers and the death of fish due to contamination of water. Recycled or colored plastic bags contain chemicals that reach the ground and can cause soil and groundwater to become toxic. In industries that do not have environmentally sound technology recycling units, air pollution is spread by the toxic smoke generated during recycling. Plastic is a material that cannot be easily absorbed into the soil. If left in the soil, it may prevent recharging of ground water. In addition to improving the properties of plastic products and their soil
Plastic bags are made by mixing a number of harmful dyes, dyes, and all other types of inorganic chemicals. Colors and dyes are a type of industrial product used to give bright colors to plastic bags. Some of these chemicals can give rise to cancer and some are capable of making foods toxic. In dyes, metals like cadmium are very harmful for health. Use of cadmium in small amounts can lead to vomiting and increase the size of the heart. The use of zinc for a long time causes the brain tissue to erode. Some plastic components such as benzene and vinyl chloride are known to cause cancer and liquid hydrocarbons contaminate the earth and air. During the production of plastics, some synthetic chemicals such as ethylene oxide, Benzene and xylins are excreted which harm the ecosystem. Apart from this, they also damage the nervous system and immune system and adversely affect the blood and kidneys. Today you can see people carrying hot tea and food in polythene at every street intersection which becomes toxic. Not only this, the mineral water packed in plastic bottles can also be toxic and constantly exposed to plastic in the heat of sunlight, which has been studied by many scientists. Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene are extensively used in the manufacture of plastics. Synthetic polymers are easily molded into complex shapes. They are high chemical resistant and are more or less elastic. Some can also be converted into fibers or thin transparent films. Due to these qualities, it has become more popular, Used to make durable or disposable items and packaging materials. Due to their highly molecular size, these chemicals have high immunity and maintain themselves in the soil environment for a long time.
Success in making biodegradable plastics
Today scientists have succeeded in making biodegradable plastics which can be eliminated by organic decomposition or can be turned into compost and organic wastes. The biodegradation of plastics is carried out by activating the microorganisms present in the environment, which inactivate the molecular structure of the plastic membranes, forming a compost-like soil inert material, and are less harmful to the environment. Biodegradable plastics are made of materials whose components are renewable raw materials, Made from petroleum-based plastics containing a mixture of bioactive compounds and any additional substances. The use of bioactive compounds ensures that when they are exposed to heat and moisture, they propagate the structure of plastic molecules and cause the bioactive compounds to metabolize and neutralize the plastic. Biodegradable plastics are specially manufactured in two forms – first, injection molded (solid, 3D shapes) used in food service items with use and throw and secondly membrane (film), especially organic (organic) fruits Bags and stacks for packaging and leaves and grass clippings are used in agricultural weeds.
Some scientists believe that a potential environmental disadvantage of certified biodegradable plastics is that the carbon trapped in them is released into the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. Although biodegradable plastics derived from natural materials, such as plastics derived from vegetable crops or from animal products, separate carbon dioxide in its growth phase, thus releasing carbon dioxide only when it is decomposing. Therefore there is no consequential increase in carbon dioxide emissions.