When I get up from the bed in the drowsy dawn, behold from the solarium the surrounding emerald foliage, listen to the crooning songs of the tiny humming birds in the close thickets and cast a glance at the decorated earthen pots containing multi coloured ornamental flowers that speak in the language of fragrance and beauty I happen to become lost in ecstasy. How beautiful the lord of the universe with his utmost skill and love has created the Good Earth. He has provided everything for sustenance of life of all human beings and all living beings, as well. We are nurtured with adequate love and care in the lap of the Mother Earth which grants all elements of comfort required for a life span. But the peace, happiness and comfort of life, at present, happens to be in the way of diminishing continuity. This is due to various factors like over exploitation of natural resources and use of plastic and other environmental issues.
While considering the plastic issue, population plays an important role. present population (2020) of china and india are 1,439,323,776 and 1,380,004,385 respectively. The annual growth or change of population bin china is 0.35% as against 1.08% of India. As per an estimate released in 2015 it was projected that India’s population will surpass that of china by 2022.
The major disadvantage of over population is use of plastic. Plastic is very harmful for us. Because of the population day by day it’s increase the use of plastic. For the control of plastic uses first we have to control the population.
enviromental pollution by plastic
Environmental pollution is contamination of the physical and biological components of the earth/atmosphere system to such an extent that normal environmental process are adversely affected. The plastic affected normal environmental process which is very harmful for us.
Types of pollution causes by Plastic
There are toxic chemicals and other pollutants that contaminate soil in high concentration risking the human health and the ecosystem. Plastic and other industrial wastes are the main factors of deterioration of land surface.
Water is the most important life sustaining gift of nature. Water pollution takes place when the water bodies like reservoirs, rivers, lakes, ocean etc are contaminated as a result of human activities. Plastic in water poisonous for the aquatic echo system. Plastic item thrown to water bodies pollute water . As per a study of UNEP in 2009 almost 6,40,000 tonnes of all fishing gear approximately 10% of the total usage is lost or discarded in our oceans annually which kill marine wild life including vulnerable species damaging considerably the marine eco system.
This is the most important pollution among all the rest. This is the most vital one among all the other pollutions. Air pollution is a mixture of particles and gases that can reach harmful concentration both outside and inside. This can cause of higher temperature. The burning of plastic increases CO2 in air 40%.
It is a long term rise in the average temperature of the earth’s, climate system. It is the increase of earth’s average surface temperature due to the effect of green house gases CO2 emission from burning of plastic which trap heat in the troposphere. Where there is increase of CO2 concentration a thick layer of this gas prevents the solar heat from being radiated back. It has a bearing on CLIMATE CHANGE- a change in global or regional climate patterns in particular, a change apparent from the need to the late 20th century onwards.
Green house effect
It is the process by which radiation from the earth’s atmosphere warms it’s surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere. If the earth’s atmosphere contains radiatively active gases (i.e. green house effect) the atmosphere radiates energy in all directions.
Use of plastic
Plastic waste has become a global concern for contaminating the environment. Plastic products has become an integral part in our day to day life. As such it is produced in adequate scale worldwide. It is estimated on an average, plastic production globally exceeds 150million tonnes per year. It has broad range of use in packaging , films, carry bag in shopping, wrapping material, fluid containers, clothing, toys, households, building material and industrial product. Approximately 9.5million tonnes per annuam plastic waste is generated in India. Out of this above 60% is recycled and balance 9400 tonnes left unattended in environment causing land ,air, and water pollution. The recycling rate in India is higher than the global average. Approximately 70% of plastic packaging products are converted in plastic waste in very shot span. Per capita plastic consumption is highest (109kg) in USA and lowest (11kg) in India. In Europe,china and Brazil it is 64kg, 38kg, 32kg respectively.
Plastic waste- A huge threat to marine ecology
Effects of plastic on aquatic life are devastating. Planktons the smallest creatures in ocean are eating the micro plastic and absorbing their chemicals. These tiny broken down pieces of plastic are displacing the algae needed to sustain larger sea life who feed on them. Plastics don’t dissolve but they break down into micro particles that circulate in the environment. A water bottle can take 1000years to break down. 83% of our drinking water contains plastic. 600 marine species are affected by plastic. Plastic travel in the current of ocean . An island of trash called the Great Pacific garbage patch has been created. There is 8million tonnes of plastic waste entering the ocean every year. Total plastic in the ocean amounts to 150milllion tonnes. I. 2004, there is 1kg of plastic in the ocean for every 5kg of fish; by 2050 there will be more plastic than fish.
Plastic waste generation in India
India generates approximately 9.4 million tonnes per year which amounts to 26,000 tonnes of waste per day. According to the report of central pollution control borad (CPCB) for the year 2017-2018, around 60% of India’s plastic waste is recycled.
Plastic waste management
There are 7 types of plastic in vogue. Now a days, an alternate to petro based plastic carry bags/ films has been introduced i. e. compostable plastic (100% bio based) carry bags/ films conforming ISO:17088. Plastic waste management rules 2016 encourages the use of compostable carry bags. Plastic bags are popular being light weight, strong, cheap and hygienic way to transport. After use they are thrown which are flown to road, park etc and cause pollution problems. So it should undergo 4R option: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Recovery and finally landfill (safe disposal waste to landfill). Various states like Odisha, Tamilnadu, Sikkim, Maharashtra had taken adequate steps to ban plastic use. Himachal Pradesh has prepared sustainable plastic waste management plan. The plastic waste has been reused in road construction. Various countries have also taken steps to ban plastic use. Goa has planned to setup a plant to process the plastic waste to produce crude oil. ACC cement company is also taking taking steps to process the plastic waste in cement kiln to produce alternate fuel.
Time has come to think over by all state governments for introducing in the education curriculum- right from primary education to the higher education- the subject ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE which is an inter disciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information science to study plastic and environment and the solution of environmental problems.
All countries should take sincere, adequate and co-ordinated efforts to obtain a beautiful GREEN GLOBE and clean ENVIRONMENT, though we can’t bring back the same(original) one that God given use.