The degradable and non-degradable materials which are remained as useless are collectively called as wastes. In 2018, World bank estimated 70% increase will be taken in waste generation that is from 2.01 billion tons of municipal solid waste to 3.4 billion tons by 2050.India itself producing 62 million tons of waste and predicted to be 165 million tons in 2030 in that 43 million tons of municipal solid waste 31 million tons of waste goes to landfill whereas remaining 11.9 million tons are treated for disposal. Canada is the largest waste generating country in the world with 36.1 metric tons of waste.
Every day i used to think that if the wastes are doesn’t treat or reduced, maybe someday it may cross the overall population all over the world. Yes, it seems to be true which increases the demand to reduction of wastes or waste treatment. Does everything suitable for treatment, in some cases it is absolute no because World Bank itself stated that 33% of world wide waste is not favored for treatment. So separation of waste seems to be an important step known as segregation of wastes. While talking about wastes we are very much familiar to three words-REDUCE, RECYCLE, REUSE commonly known as 3 R’S. Segregation at source plays a major role because wastes may be a combination of non-degradable such as plastics and degradable as kitchen wastes, segregation of wastes at source means we should separate them at sources like households and industries which are the major waste producing sources. From households, every household member should be responsible for segregation of waste because from households wastes are collected by municipalities in urban areas whereas in rural areas collected by village panchayat- while they are collecting wastes, the wastes are separated in various bins as they collected wastes from households in various bags means here segregation takes place by household members only. Generally households’ wastes contain wet and fry waste and their separation helps us to decide the further step of waste treatment. Wastes from industries maybe in solid form, liquid form or they may be toxic or non-toxic chemicals, solid wastes are separated into degradable or non-degradable whereas liquid wastes may contain toxic chemicals so their separation plays an important role because their treatment varies with their composition if they are non-toxic wastes and bacteria free their are disposed directly into water bodies or into landfills sometimes reuse plays a better role for reduction of wastes. Toxic wastes again segregated upon their properties for physical, chemical, biological treatments-their treatment takes some time to reduce the toxic nature of waste for disposal. Wastes are of various forms such as agricultural wastes, radioactive wastes, industrial wastes, domestic wastes these wastes shows various impact on environment which effects human health, water bodies and vegetation therefore wastes should be treated before its disposal to minimize the hazardous effects on environment. The treatment for wastes varies depending upon their characteristics and nature so the wastes should be separated for their proper treatment.
After segregating the wastes they are subjected to treatment according to their properties and characteristics after that these wastes are lead for disposal in various forms like landfills, disposed into water bodies or it may be reused for many industrial process like coolant in cooling towers they may be used in agriculture as manure by disposing them in land forms. Thus segregation of wastes at source decreases load on treatment plants which makes treatment easier and economical.