WASTE AND ITS MANAGEMENT
Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use. Waste are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is produced by human activities. For example: radioactive wastes, empty bottles, used pens, used clothes, household trash, wastewater, bodily wastes, etc. We can see waste anywhere like in homes, companies, shops, streets, gardens, etc.
There are so many types of wastes for example liquid waste, solid waste, medical waste, recyclable waste, organic waste, etc.
Liquid waste are present in liquid or fluid form. Liquid wastes cannot be easily picked up and removed from an environment. Liquid wastes spread out, and easily pollute other sources of liquid if brought into contact. Examples of liquid waste are wash water, sludges, waste detergents and dirty water that have been thrown away. They are hazardous and poisonous to our environment and are found in industries as well as households.
Solid waste are found in solid form. Solid waste can be found both in industries as well as in households. Examples of solid waste are garbage, used bottles, used clothes, paper, food cans, etc. There are further many types of solid wastes like plastic waste, paper waste, glass wastes, etc. Plastic waste is any container, jar or bottle. They can be found in houses as well as in companies. Plastics are non-biodegradable. Paper waste includes newspapers, paper packaging materials, cardboards, and other paper products. Paper is recyclable. Metal wastes can be easily found in homes because food containers and household materials are made from them. Metals are both recyclable and non- recyclable.
Recyclable wastes are those wastes which can be reused. Recyclable waste includes discarded items like metals, furniture, organic waste etc.
Organic waste refers to rotten meat, rotten vegetables, garden waste, food waste, etc. This type of waste is commonly found in homes. With time, they decompose and turn into manure by the action of microorganisms on them.
Hazardous waste are those wastes which are hazardious to nature as well as to living beings. Hazardous waste includes corrosive materials, toxic materials, reactive materials, radioactive materials etc. They are wastes that pose a threat to our environment.
Waste management includes the activities and actions required to manage waste before its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management process. Waste can be solid, liquid, or gas and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management needs proper techniques keeping in mind the environmental situations. Waste management deals with all types of waste. Proper management of waste is important for building sustainable and livable cities.
There are various ways by which wastes can be managed. Some of them are as follows:
Recycling: Recycling is the reusing of things that are scrapped of. This method does not need any resources. Therefore this is much useful in the management of waste. Moreover, recycling is further converting waste into useful resources. In our daily life we use a lot of things which are recycleable like paper, glass, cardboard, plastic, textiles, etc.
Waste Reduction: An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created. Waste Reduction is reducing the quantity of hazardous wastes achieved through a thorough application of innovative procedures. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items instead of buying new ones, designing products to be refillable or reusable such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags, encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products, removing any food/liquid remains from cans and packaging, etc.
Landfill: A landfill is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial. Landfill is the oldest form of waste treatment. Landfills must be open and available to users every day. While the majority of its customers are municipalities, commercial and construction companies, residents are also allowed to use the landfill in most cases. Historically, landfills have been the most common method of waste disposal .
Dewatering: The process of dewatering can only be applied if the liquid waste is non-hazardous. During this process, the water from the liquid waste is removed until only solid waste remains.
Sedimentation: Sedimentation is another process to dispose of liquid waste. Sedimentation is used during the initial processes of sewage treatment. This is a process that does not use high-pressure technologies to split solid and liquid wastewater. Once the sedimentation process is complete and all of the solids can be skimmed and removed from the liquid waste, the remaining water in the basin can be filtered and treated for recycling.
Composting process: This process is popular in developing countries. Decomposable organic matter is separated and composted in this procedure. Yields are stable end products and good soil conditioners. They can be used as a base for fertilizers.
Wastes can be managed in a lot of ways. Waste separation from the household level, proper storage, more efficient waste collection systems, and sustainable recovery and disposal practices are identified as needed processes in the study area. Considering the nature and components of waste generated by households and business places, the waste reduction, reuse, recycling and composting processes would be more suitable in managing the challenge. These management options should be integrated in a sustainable framework. Adequate consideration should be given to monitoring processes. Public education and properly planned waste management programs also need to be introduced into the current waste management system. Especially awareness programmes must be conducted in order to improve the knowledge about the importance of waste management.