Waste can be solid, liquid, or gas and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological and household. In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health.
Waste is produced by human activity, for example, the extraction and processing of raw materials.
Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health the environment or aesthetics.
Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural areas), and resedential and industrial sectors can all take different approaches.
Proper management of waste is important for building sustainable and livable cities, but it remains a challenge for many developing countries and cities. Effective waste management is quite expensive, usually comprising 20%–50% of municipal budgets. Operating this essential municipal service requires integrated systems that are efficient, sustainable, and socially supported. In view of this, the World Bank finances and advises on solid waste management projects using a diverse suite of products and services, including traditional loans, results-based financing, development policy financing, and technical advisory. World Bank-financed waste management projects usually address the entire lifecycle of waste right from the point of generation to collection and transportation, and finally treatment and disposal. A large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the bulk of the waste that is created by household, industrial, and commercial activity.
*Waste Segregation at Source*
This is the separation of wet waste and dry waste. The purpose is to recycle dry waste easily and to use wet waste as compost. When segregating waste, the amount of waste that gets landfilled reduces considerably, resulting in lower levels of air and water pollution. It is important to remember that waste segregation should be based on the type of waste and the most appropriate treatment and disposal. This also makes it easier to apply different processes to the waste, like composting, recycling and incineration. It is important to practice waste management and segregation as a community. One way to practice waste management is to ensure there is awareness. The process of waste segregation should be explained to the community.
Segregated waste is also often cheaper to dispose of because it does not require as much manual sorting as mixed waste. There are a number of important reasons why waste segregation is important such as legal obligations, cost savings and protection of human health and the environment. Institutions should make it as easy as possible for their staff to correctly segregate their waste. This can include labelling, making sure there are enough accessible bins and clearly indicating why segregation is so important.
Recommended colour coding of containers
• Yellow- for infectious waste
• Brown- for chemical and pharmaceutical waste
• Black- for general waste