Waste management is all those activities and actions required to manage waste from its final disposal. This includes amongst other things, collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste together with monitoring and regulation.It also encompasses the legal and regulatory framework the relates to waste management encompassing guidance on recycling etc.., Due to COVID 19 pandemic, all the cyclic process is come down.so,there is no waste in our country and it is full of clean. The flow of water is also clean and breathing of air is also fresh.There is no industry are running due to it, the disposal output is less.
Household waste generation and composition :
The average waste is about 450 grams of waste per person per day. There is much variability in per capital daily household municipal solid. Waste generation ranges from 170grams per person in small town to 620grams per person in large cities.A study of Indian metro cities estimate MSW composition to be 41%organic ,40% inert, 6% paper, 4%plastic ,4%textiles,2%glass,2%metals and 1% leather.
E-waste in India :
The global e-waste monitor a collaboration between the International Telecommunication Union [ITU] and the united nations university, estimated that India generated 1.975 million tonnes of e-waste. The associated chambers of commerce and industry stated rapid economic growth and changing consumer behavior was likely to increase e-waste generation in India to 5.2 million tonnes per year by 2020.
Waste management market in India :
By 2025,the waste management market size in India is projected to be worth ~USD 15 Billion with annual growth around 7%.A growing economy, soaring urban population, rising living standards and increasing consumption levels are common trends in emerging economies across the globe. With India flourishing on the same grounds an increase in the purchasing power parity has led to more affordability, accessibility to resource use and a rapid surge in the waste volumes as well.
Method of disposal :
Land fill is the most traditional method of waste disposal.waste is directly dumped into disused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. Disposed waste is compacted and covered with soil. Gases generated by the decomposing waste materials are often burnt to generate power. It is generally used for domestic waste.
It is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of soild waste at 1000c.waste materials are converted into ash, flue gas and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and gases due to organic waste the heat generated by incineration is used to generate electric power.
3, Compaction :
The waste is compacted or compressed. It is also breaks up large or fragile items of waste. This process is conspicuous in the feed at the back end of many garbage collection vehicles. Deposit refuse at bottom of slope for best compaction and control of blowing litter.
Waste management policies:
1,Environment protection act, 1986.
2,Hazardous waste rule, 1989.
3,Bio-medical waste rule, 1998.
4,waste management act, 1996.
5,Municipal solid waste rule, 2000.
It is found that with increase in the global population and the rising demand for food and other essentials,there has been a rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. Waste that is not properly managed, especially excreta and other liquid and soildwaste from households and the community, are a serious health hazard and lead to the spread of infectious diseases.