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WASTE MANAGEMENT-RESPONSIBILITY OF EVERY CITIZEN

Earth is a small planet with limited natural resources to support life. The achievement of technological innovations, industrial revolution and urbanization were for the comfort and development. The achievement of goals, the natural resources have been exploited to the maximum. This results in environmental issues.
There are many environmental issues. Pollution, water scarcity, forests and agricultural degradation of land, resource depletion, population growth, ozone depletion, environmental degradation, public health, loss of biodiversity, green house effect, deforestation, garbaga, use of domestically prohibited goods and pollution of nature, electric waste , poor waste management. Among the issues waste management is salient problem.
Electric and electronic waste is becoy major threat to the present world. It’s toxic emissions mixed with virgin soil and air and causing harmful effects to the entire biodiversity either directly or indirectly. Direct impact includes release of acids, toxic compounds including heavy metals, carcinogenic chemicals and indirect effects such as biomagnification. The solution for this problem is eco-friendly recycling of electronic waste. This results in reduction of land fills.
Swachh Bharat mission which was launched on 2 nd October 2014 aimed to achieve the vision of ‘ Clean India‘. It had a great impact on waste management. Waste is collected on a daily basis from household in 93% of the country’s municipal council under the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan of which only 57% is processed, the ministry of Housing and Urban development has said. According to the rules, responsibility for collection, segregation processing and recycling trash sent to  dumping grounds lies with the respective municipal councils of cities and urban areas under the swachh Bharat mission, the counsil of Central government has allotted rupees Rs 5023.93 crore for effective solid waste management. states are also being provided with techniques for reusing plastic waste towards making roads, in cement industry and manufacture of refuse-derived fuel. holistic approach of waste management link society, economy and environment towards sustainable development. the importance of economic issues to increase implementation of innovative environmentaltechnologies is identified and economic drivers are considered critical parameters for policymakers to develop effective techniques. The study of social perceptions and attitudes can provide an insight into several factors that affect the public awareness on environmental issues. Much work has been reported to enhance public acceptance of emerging technologies balanced with cost effectiveness. Various socio- economic factors influence the recycling behaviour and willingness to pay for the introduction of recycling actions into waste Management services. Social acceptance should be considered along with economic issues and the evalution of environmental impacts to ensure the efficient implementation of sustainable waste management actions.
As the population increases the waste generated by the people also increases. The waste management has become the top priority problem in the country. We see litter and heaps of waste in corners of streets, roads and public places. We know that ‘ cleanliness is next to godliness’. Keeping the surroundings clean is the prime factor that avoids spread of many diseases and infections.
Maintenance of clean surroundings responsibility of every citizen.  Garbage disposal is the main problem in our country. Proper disposal of garbage should be a concern of every citizen and not just the government. Every individual must reduce activities that pollute environment. A lot of waste is generated from homes, offices, schools, hospitals etc. It includes food waste, plastics, paper, glass, metals etc. Therefore, it is required that every individual must reduce the production of waste and must help in proper disposal of the waste. It is possible to reduce problems related to disposal of garbage. Here are some steps that can be observed by every individual to reduce the problem of garbage disposal. It is very easy to use and produce plastic. So plastic materials are produced and used enormously which leads to environmental pollution.
There are many ways to reduce waste generated and proper disposal of garbage. Plastics are non biodegradable solid materials.  Avoid use of plastic bags to reduce pollution. Encourage shopkeepers to use paper bags. We should reuse the waste materials to prevent pollution. Save paper. Use both sides of paper to write. Use separate bins for recyclable and non recyclable waste. Kitchen waste that include fruit and vegetable peels, waste food, tea leaves etc can be used for preparation of manure. If we carry a cloth bag with us when we go out we may reduce more than 50% of usage of plastic bags. we should use steel plates and glasses instead of plastic or disposables. Wastage of food materials can be reduced by following proper practices during preparation and serving of food. If we wash our clothes by using mild soaps the water may be utilised for kitchen garden and toilets. Plantation can reduce pollution. The  unhygienic practices like washing clothes and bathing animals in rivers lakes and ponds can be controlled by providing an alternative arrangements. Excess use of pesticide, insecticides and fertilizers which reduced fertility should be discouraged in the field of agriculture. Encourage sustainable agriculture and organic farming. Cropping such as mixed cropping and intercropping are alternative to mono cropping and helpful in retaining the fertility of soil. People should be educated against pollution and waste disposal. Separate drainage of sewage water and rain water should be maintained to prevent overflow of sewage with rain water. Use electric drive in vehicles in crowded areas. Government and public should take initiative to implement various methods to reduce pollution and disposal of waste. The industrial zones and residential zones are separated by buffer zones while planning of cities or towns. The concentration of pollutants emitted from industries can be diluted by maintaining buffer zone with plantation. Alternative sources of energy should be adopted. Treatment of sewage and industrial waste before their disposal into water streams should be done. Non-biodegradable best must be dumped underground with utmost care. Research facilities should be improved on innovative ideas and treatment methods. Encourage people to take ownership of their own role in waste disposal.
At present the world is being effected due to covid-19 pandemic. Contingency policies are linked to improvements in air quality, the clean beaches and less environmental noise. Increased waste and reduction of recycling are negative side effects of covid-19. Decreasing greenhouse gases during a short period is not a sustainable way to clean up our environment. Coronavirus that started in Wuhan, China and outspread worldwide with an unexpectedly fast speed.
Flights have been cancelled worldwide and transportation has been closed nationwide across international borders. Covid-19 has several impacts on global migration. Over all carbon emissions have been dropped and covid-19 lockdown has led to an improvement in air quality and a reduction in water pollution in many cities around the globe. For instance, a vital drop in air contamination has been indicated. The decrease of NO2 level has been observed in many countries. Covid-19 have a great impact on improvement of water bodies such as improvement of ganga River in India. There is direct influence of humidity, air pollution and temperature. CO2 emissions in 2020 show a vigorous decrease when measured against 2019.
All the waste generated by biomedical research institutions, health facilities, medical laboratories and waste materials is removed using a variety of methods.
The magnetic sorters, screen separators and opticals separators divide the metals, papers and plastics from the other waste. Recycling  bins collect the materials which can be recycled. Remaining waste is sorted out into solid recovery fuel and remaining two landfills.
After mechanical separation, the mechanically recovered waste is mixed with water and then added in batches to the sealed vats. Inside the stainless steel for reinforced concrete sealed vats where a natural biological process occurs leading to an increased temperature which helps release methane gas from the material. The methane is captured and can be used to power an electricity generator or as a replacement fuel. Each batch takes approximately 30 days to complete the process. As each batch matures a new one is added. Matured batches are allocated to dry out leaving a stable material which can be land filled or turned into a useful solid recovered fuel.  anerobic digestion has many benefits, it significantly reduces the amount of waste send to landfills, it releases valuable energy and the end product. The stable material has a much lower environmental impact than the untreated waste.
Energy can be produced from the solid recovered fuel by the various processes. But it requires a processing unit.  There are many process for recovery of energy. One of these processes gasification. This process requires a new,dedicated power. The plant will use solid recovered fuel processed by mechanical biological treatment. The fuel is fed into a reaction chamber where the gasification process takes place. Gasification simply refers to the production of a gas under starved air conditions. Also known as substoicheometric conditions, it means that less oxygen than normal is present in the reaction chamber. The resulting reaction creates temperatures of over 700 degree Celsius.
By adding air,the carbon and hydrogen content of the Solid recovered fuel is partly combusted and partly converted into a combustible gas. This gas can be used to generate electricity which is then fed into the local grid. Ash and flue gases are also created.
These by products are further treated. The fuel gases are further passes through a sophisticated filter system where they are cleaned and constantly controlled and monitored. The small amounts of fly ash captured for landfills and bottom Ash is recycled for use in the construction industry. The Northwest region waste management group expects that one year residual black Bin waste from the region will provide 60,000 tons of solid recovered fuel. Gasification can use this fuel to generate 30 gigawatt hours of electricity enough to power 6000 homes for an entire year. This electricity has the added benefit that it will be classified as renewable energy but this is a little expensive process. It is already being used in Europe. It would be beneficial if it is implemented in our country also with certain rules and regulations.
Hence, sustainable development should be under taken with out distruction of environment. 3R principals should be followed in order to save environment. Waste material should be reused reduced and recycle before disposing land fills. Students should be enlightened about conservation of environment. Every citizen should take necessary measures in waste disposal process. It is responsibility of every person of our nation.

“SAVE NATURE FOR BETTER FUTURE”

 
 
 
 
 

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Vasireddi Sirisha

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