A person who wanted India to be a waste-free country, having sanitization facilities everywhere. He gave more focus on clean India a hundred years ago when people did not know the true meaning of cleanliness when people use mud and ash for cleaning dirtiest hands and even utensils. He always asked people to take responsibility for the waste and provided numerous techniques and ways to achieve cleanliness. He was such a great person who motivates not only people but also the various governments who came to govern India in the various period. He is none other than the father of the nation , “Mahatma Gandhi Ji”.
He is still such an influencer because of whom,” Swach Bharat Mission” “Clean Ganga Mission”, etc initiatives made in India to ensure cleanliness.
What do people think of Waste?
Now even after the advancement of technology and the mind of people, most people do not know what is waste? And because they do not know they do not manage it. Let us understand by an example, a person X goes to the gym daily and for a healthy body and to meet requirements, he used to eat 7 bananas per day. Daily X goes to a shop and shopkeeper gave him 7 bananas in double black polythene. After eating those Bananas he throws that polythene along with banana peels on road. In the same colony where X residing, more than 20 persons went to the gym daily and a similar process of buying and eating banana and throwing of peel and polythene on road, followed by all these 20 persons. One day the sewage chocked and water comes out from the sewage and suffered by all the natives of the colony along with the people who just pass from that Colony. This is the only example, there are lots of example across India where people did not even know that what they are doing is increases the waste in society.
What is Waste?
Misusing of resources of nature or man-made which is necessary for the people who do not have, is waste.
In a broader sense waste can be classified into three categories.
1. Liquid waste
It refers to the waste which is in liquid form. It comes from factories households, institutions, etc. For example detergents, grease, oil, dirty water etc.
They are very hazardous to our environment and ultimately to a human being. This type of waste can contain up to some extent by managing and make people aware at ground level about their various hazardous effects. It can also be contained by building a liquid waste treatment plant where all the stored liquid waste can be recycled. If the treatment is not possible then it should be properly disposed off at a suitable place.
2. Solid waste
This is the second type of waste which is in the form of plastic, paper, rubber, polythene, glass, metals, etc i.e. it refers to hard material waste.
They can be largely managed by the recycling process.
3. Organic waste
It refers to the waste which largely comes from households.
E.g. Food waste, garden waste, rotten foods, etc.
Most people buy or cook extra food which would be thrown out, is considered as a waste. It is highly manageable by self-awareness program, active media and social media for awarding people about the management, moral practices, consumer education. Most importantly we as an individual or a group of some people can easily manage by not considering it waste by transferring extra food to needy people or even starved animals. Some initiatives like Roti Bank already been working up to some extent in some cities like Lucknow, Varanasi etc.
INDIA AND OTHERS
According to the World Bank report, Global waste would increase by 70% on current levels by 2050, if not managed urgently and without urgent action. According to the report, globally we shares about 2.01 billion tons of waste in 2016 and it is expected to jump to 3.4 billion tons over the next 30 years. Sustainable management is necessary, unlike somewhere in 2016, it was estimated that about 1.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide generated from the recycling process of the waste shared about 5% of global emissions.
” Mismanagement of waste is harming human health and native environments while adding to global climate change,” said Laura Tuck, Vice President for Sustainable Development, World Bank.
Daily per capita plastic waste incurred by the highest countries like Germany, United States, etc is more than 10 times higher than many underdeveloped countries like India, Bangladesh, Tanzania, etc.
India ranked 168th at Environmental Performance Index, Denmark is at 1st, UK at 4th, the USA at 24th and China at 120th. Hence, we are not good in sustainable Environment development but we can improve by taking various precautions and measures.
When we compare India with other countries then the comparison can be classified into two broad categories viz. India versus developed countries and India versus developing countries. India is developing country have so many similar features to other countries at developing stage. When we compare India with developed countries like USA, Germany, Australia etc, we find so many dissimilar features which account for India to be less sustainable in waste management. GDP matters so per capita income, developed countries are more enhanced and people are more educated comparing to India which is also a big factor at the individual level to manage waste as I already discussed people are not aware of waste.
“Throwing of banana peel on-road may be good for an illiterate person but not in case of educated person”.
Here, illiterate and educated does not mean that the person who has more degree is more educated. The educated person means a person who is morally, socially, environmentally, economically, legally vigilant, who knows the consequences of his acts. According to market analysts, India and China shares 36% of the total global population and generate 27 % of global Municipal waste.
Managing Waste at Individual Level
“Precaution is Better Than Cure”
In maximum cases solution for a problem is to imparting responsibility and accountability to the persons concerned. If people become aware and understand their responsibility and become accountable towards others, not only waste but other problems can also be managed easily.
Awareness Programmes: Awareness programmes should be regularly held to aware the people about the waste they do and tell them managing tips.
“Waste can never end, it can be managed”
Making Laws: Strict laws should be made about managing waste and to impose penalty and punishment when people found doing waste after giving a one-time warning.
Social media can also play an important role in making people aware of waste and its management. There are very fewer organisations for waste management or awareness programs, individual should come forward to organise such organisations or programs.
As Gandhiji very rightly said, ” Be the change that you wish to see in the world”.
Constitution provided directions to the states to make law for the protection and the promotion of environment as Directive Principles of State Policy under Article 48A. Ultimately it’s aim is to make India well waste the managed country. Schemes were launched by the government to ensure cleanliness in all over India.
“Swach Bharat Mission”, Green India, Clean India”, Ghar Ghar Sauchalaya”, etc are the schemes and slogans which hugely impacted our society. 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act 1946 added fundamental duties under which Article 51A(g) imposes a duty on the citizens of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife.
This can be achieved by taking responsibility for not producing waste and for management which required a Holistic long-term view, change in Lifestyle, environment and economic sustainability by creating an environmental awaken citizenry.
Al gore said, “A Lifestyle change to save the environment has become a ‘moral imperative’ “.
To sum up, the conclusion is clear that we should take responsibility to manage waste. There should be the disposal of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste separately, developing large recycling factories, use of recyclable plastic and papers, proper collection of waste, a complete ban on the use of Polythene and penalty for violation, the government should start by themselves by not using plastics, regular awareness program should be there, use of Steel tumbler in marriage instead of plastic bottles, etc all the responsible measures that we should take to ensure cleanliness. In the end we would say, There is no rule and no law can separate you and control you. Change is what we can do. If we invest a little time and effort, we can bring a big change.