WASTE:-Waste are unwanted are unusable materials .Waste is any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use .A by product by contrast is a joint product of relatively minor economic value .In the united states ,people who work with waste professionally use FOUR TERMS .
1 – Trash
TRASH : Trash is dry .
GARBAGE : Garbage is wet .
REFUSE: Refuse is both .
RUBBISH: Rubbish is refuse plus construction and demolition debris .
According to Basel, ” Convention on the control of transboundary movements of HAZARDOUS WASTE and their Disposal of 1989 , art. 2(1) , “wastes are substance are objects ,which are disposed of are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed by the provisions of national law. ”
TYPES OF WASTAGE :
1. Municipal Waste
3. Biomedical Waste
4. Special Hazardous Waste
WASTE OF ENERGY:
Waste of Energy or Energy from Waste is process of generating energy in the from by electricity and / or heat from the primary treatment of wastes or the processing of waste in to a fuel source . Waste to Energy is a form of energy recovery . Most waste to energy processes generate electricity and / are heat directly through combustion , or produce a combustible fuel commodity , such as METHANE, METHANOL, ETHANOL/SYNTHETIC Fuels.
Energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on , or to heat , the object .
Energy is conserved quantity ; the law of conservation of energy sates that energy can be converted in form ,but not created or destroyed . The SI unit of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of 1m. against a force of 1newton.
The sun is the source of energy for most of life on Earth. It derives its energy mainly from nuclear fusion in its core , converting mass to energy as protons are combined to form Helium gas.
WASTE TO ENERGY – SOLUTION FOR TOMORROWs ENERGY
In a growing world ,where the conventional forms of energy are fast moving towards extinction as well as are contributing generously to global concerns like the greenhouse effect and global warming ,the need to innovate and employ alternate or unconventional energy sources has become crucial for the existence of a future.
Waste to Energy ,also widely recognized by its acronym Waste to Energy is the generation of energy in the form of heat or electricity from waste .
MARKET OVERVIEW :
The market for waste to energy is expected to grow at a CAGR of approximately 6.45% during the forecast period of 2020-2025. An increasing amount of waste generation and growing concern for its management to meet the need for sustainable urban living and increasing focus on non-fossil fuel sources of energy are driving the adoption of waste to energy market .
Market is restrained by the expensive nature of incinerators ,particularly as energy prices decline , and a number of plants are unable to cover operating costs. Further , several EUROPEAN COUNTRIES and JAPAN are planning to focus more on recycling , which saves three to five times more energy and hence , restraining the waste to energy market .
A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes .
A policy is a statement of intent and is implemented as a procedure or protocol.
Policies are generally adopted by a governance body within an organization .
The Indian Government has recognized waste to energy as a renewable technology and supports it through various subsides and incentives.
MNRE is also promoting the research on waste to energy by providing financial support for R&D projects on cost sharing basis in accordance with the R&D Policy of the MNRE .
Energy from Waste refers to converting waste materials into fuels or energy in the form of electricity ,heat, cooling .
DEVELOPMENT OF EfW POLICY :
Consultation and input from a technical working group comprised of representative from the local govt. associations of Queensland , the waste Recycling industry association of Queensland, the waste management and resource recovery association of Australia, Boomerang Alliance – and the university of Southern Queensland .
Consultation with stakeholders from the waste management and resource recovery industry , the power generations and distribution sectors ,the environmental advocacy sector ,the state and local govt.
A policy guideline is being developed to provide detailed guidance on how to meet policy requirements, along with Model Operating Conditions for some types of energy to waste facilities to illustrate the conditions that are likely to apply to an environmental authority for such facilities .
There is no single recipe for waste management . However, there are a few golden rules: start small , keep it simple and advance step by step . It is better not to apply the most advanced technologies. There are too many redundant waste plants worldwide.
All stakeholders in the waste chain should be involved but it should be realised that PPPs might take a long time ,up to five years . When assessing a waste project ,the value of the number of jobs created should be included ; this may be important to demonstrate economic viable . Likewise , environmental costs should be taken in to consideration .
The workshop sessions were facilitated by Kees Kwant , Pat Howes and Thembakazi Mali.
the contributions of these and also the invited speakers is gratefully acknowledged .