“There is a mystery behind in WASTE TO ENERGY”. Some one knows where other one doesn’t knows that. What is waste to energy(WTE)?, it is a term that is used to describe various technologies that convert non-recyclable waste into suitable forms of energy including heat, energy and electricity. WTE plant converts municipal and industrial solid waste into electricity and or heat for industrial processing, works by burning waste at high temperatures and using the heat to make steam. The steam then drives a turbine that creates electricity.
The Methods for this technology are;
THERMAL TECHNOLOGY: Thermal technology is any waste treatment technology that involves high temperatures in the processing of the waste feedstock. A waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials is called incineration which converts the waste into ash , flue gas (sometimes called exhaust gas or stack gas usually consisting of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and water vapor, particulate matter, carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides etc…) and heat. Another process is gasification that converts organic or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon dioxide, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. It is achieved by reacting the material high temperatures (>700 degree Celcius), without combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen and or steam. An extreme thermal process using plasma which converts organic matter into a syngas which is primarly made up of hydrogen and carbon monoxide ,(plasma gasification process) a plasma torch powered by an electric arc is used to ionize gas and catalyze organic matter into syngas with slag remaining as a byproduct.
NON-THERMAL TECHNOLOGY: waste treatment technology that happens usually near room(normal) temperatures. Landfill gas utilization is a process of gathering, processing and treating the methane or another gas emitted from decomposing garbage to produce electricity, heat, fuels, and various chemical compounds. product is 40% to 60% methane, with the remain der being mostly carbon dioxide . Anaerobic digestion produces a biogas, consisting of methane ,carbon dioxide , and traces of other ‘contaminant’ gases. This biogas can be used directly as fuel.
ADVANTAGES of this technologies is that , reduce the quantity of waste , net reduction in environmental pollution, generation of substantial quantity of energy, reduces severe water and air pollution. The CHALLENGE is that effective technology is not readily available in India and needs to be imported . High costs of setting up the plant and non-compliance of solid waste management rules, low availability of segregated municipal solid waste and WTE plants .Also urban local bodies lack financial resources ,inability to handle mixed solid waste and the high cost of electricity generated by them. Therefore, the sector becomes less attractive to power companies . In our country India , Ministry of new and renewable energy (MNRE) , potential of about 1700 MW from urban waste and about 1300 MW from industrial waste. Also Indian renewable energy development agency limited (IREDA) estimates indicate that India has so far realized only about 2% of its waste-to-energy potential. The waste to energy project put forward the way for the entire waste management system to be handled as a profitable venture by industry. Municipalities and private player in this business needs to ensure segregation at source and support end-to-end segregation, The ministry should actively promote the generation of energy from waste , by providing subsidies and incentives for the projects. Also promote the research on waste to energy by proving financial support for Research and development (R &D) projects. NITI Aayog has suggested setting up an national level authority. Delhi becomes the India’s first project to receive power from waste-to-energy, Ghazipur in Delhi becomes famous for waste to energy plants. Like India, Sweden turns their country from waste to energy plants .
India’s waste to energy project includes five waste to energy plants in operation, and its total capacity of plants is 53 MW . In 2021, government plans to expand capacity to 365.4 MW. Effective waste segregation practices required ,improper segregation adds to cost of generating energy, waste to energy plants blamed for toxic emissions. Burning of waste resulting in emissions of dioxins and furans . Ganga is one of the holiest rivers for Hindus in India , support from pilgrims crucial to reduce pollution , volunteers of this waste-to-energy project show religious zeal in cleaning the Ganga. Indian Railways also promote waste-to-energy plant at first time.
IN MY OPINION: waste-to-energy plan will change not only in our country India but also in other countries whole life. we should proudly come to become an part in this good project . I hope this project will reduce the waste , waste caused diseases etc..it will be very big relief to poor family who live near to waste dumping areas . Also from this project our country will be great in economically . Also we should try to reduce our bad habits like waste dumping on public .”PROUD TO BE AN INDIAN”!