Waste is a natural by product of the phenomena of life and growth of societies. It is viewed as unwanted or unusable material that has been disposed or discarded after primary use, i.e,plants shed leaves, animals excrete and humans in their day to day life create a boundless heap of waste of countless variety.
Waste management that leads to generation of substances and products that can be put to primarily use is an emergijg major sector for employment to meet the livelihood needs of the vast majority of India’s rapidly growing population. In India, the potential of waste to wealth enterprise is very high. Currently not enough has been done. Increasing opportunities for this enterprise can have manifold advantages.
It can bring back useless, discarded waste products into economic use and lead to
1.Reduction of pressure induced by waste on the environment;
2.Creation of opportunities for income and employment generation in a relatively new area there by enhance economic activity;and
3.Impact quality of life.
.the chalange posed by waste and its impact on environment and health;
. how day to day activities generate waste;
.classification of different types of waste and mechanisms for their disposal ;
.concept of 5R:Reduce, Reuse,Recycle, Refuse, Recover.
Wastes are unwanted or unusable objects or materials which are discarded after primary use, or declared as worthless, defective and of no use. Municipalities require these to be disposed of by the provisions of national law.
Examples include Municipal Solid waste (MSW) which is household trash/refuse, hazardous waste, wastewater (such as sewage, which contains bodily wastes – faeces and urine – and surface runoff), radioactive waste, e-waste and others.
Biodegradable materials are composed of waste from living organisms and the actual plant, animal or other organisms when its life ends.
Examples: These include human and animal waste; plant products, wood, paper, food waste, leaves, grass clippings and other horticulture waste; and remains from death of living creatures such as animal carcasses.
BIO-DEGRADATION OR DECOMPOSITION:
This is the process of changing biodegradable materials into a useful resource. A quick look at any ecological system shows widespread synergy between organisms. Waste from one living entity often helps create a healthy
environment for another organism, providing nourishment and conditions conducive for its
survival and growth. Decayed organic material (compost) is commonly used as manure or fertilizer for growing plants. It improves soil structure and provides nutrients. The process of
compositing requires making a heap of wet organic matter known as green waste (leaves,food waste) and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of weeks or months. The decomposition can be accelerated by other living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, insects, worms, etc. and abiotic elements like temperature, moisture, oxygen, ultraviolet light, etc.
WASTE MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW
All of us generate immense waste on day-to-day basis without being conscious of the
neighborhood and the escalation of the problem. Our daily dump includes plastic bottles, plastic/Styrofoam cups, plastic carry bags, metal cans, tetra packs, metal scraps and
construction debris of all kinds.
Most of us do not realize that much of household waste is non biodegradable. We generate and dump this waste along with the biodegradable waste without realizing the hazards this action poses. Non biodegradable waste such as commonly used batteries, aerosols, bulbs, fluorescent tubes, polishes, adhesives, household cleaners, drain cleaners, solvents, broken thermometers, medicines, syringes, discarded wound dressings, surgical gloves, diapers,
sanitary pads, etc. contain harmful chemicals and require careful, and often specialized,handling.
The treatment of waste depends upon its nature and decomposition properties. Hence handling of waste requires segregation at source. A simple practice is to identify wet and dry waste being generated in the household and discard these in separate containers. Many households and communities now convert wet kitchen waste into compost,a product used for enriching soil quality.
Wet and dry waste can include potentially hazardous waste materials that should be segregated more carefully.